25 October 2005
Peacekeeping Problems Arise from Unrepresentative Security Council Lacking Will to Act, Delegate Tells Fourth Committee as It Continues Review
Other Speakers Stress Need for Cooperation with Regional Bodies, Security of Peacekeepers; Condemn Sexual Abuse
NEW YORK, 24 October (UN Headquarters) -- The main problem besetting United Nations peacekeeping was neither a dearth of resources nor even a shortage of personnel, but an unrepresentative Security Council that lacked the political will to act, India's representative told the Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization) this morning as it continued its review of peacekeeping operations.
Even when the Council did act, it did so inadequately, he said, adding that it refused to draw troop contributors into discussions. Arising from the bitter experience when the Council had changed the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) from a Chapter VI to a Chapter VII mandate without consulting India and Jordan, the two largest contingents -- which had led to their withdrawal -- the Indian delegation strongly urged enhanced interaction between the Council, the Secretariat and troop-contributing countries. The fact that a total of 83,000 troops were serving in 18 United Nations peacekeeping operations around the world was a sad commentary on the global community.
He warned that if Charter provisions were not followed, and troop contributors were not given a say in the evolution of Council mandates, they might have little option in the future but to pull out of operations in which their units were forced to take on tasks that they either could not or should not take on. More than 80 per cent of peacekeeping troops were from members countries of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Council should shore up participation by others. Regarding the recent tendency towards regional solutions he said, "We must guard against such operations becoming franchised or sub-contracted to a degree where the Security Council is perceived as using regionalization as a device to shirk the exercise of its global responsibility for peace and security".
However, other participants in the debate stressed the importance of cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations in peacekeeping. The representative of Brazil said there were clear advantages to having close relationships with organizations that possessed greater knowledge of the field. But the capacities of those bodies should not be over-stretched and their competences should be respected.
Poland's delegate also expressed support for the further enhancement and systematization of relationships between the United Nations and regional organizations through a framework of agreements and other measures as referred to in Security Council resolution 1631 (2005). The most urgent question was that of practical cooperation in planning and operations. Not only was the United Nations over-stretched, but Member States were increasingly less able to provide troops when the need arose. The establishment of the Peacebuilding Commission, called for by the Outcome Document of the 2005 World Summit, would definitively advance the development of multifunctional and multifaceted peacekeeping missions, especially in Africa.
Echoing the concerns of many other speakers, Cameroon's representative condemned sexual exploitation and abuse by some United Nations personnel, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, pointing out that peacekeeping operations were to some extent a window on the Organization that should not be smudged by the dishonourable conduct of some peacekeepers. Member States from which the perpetrators came must take appropriate measures to prevent any recurrence of such behaviour, the prevention of which required better training, including in ethics and discipline. The Organization's policy should also be explained to local populations.
Other concerns addressed by speakers this morning included the security of peacekeepers themselves. Pakistan's delegate pointed out that United Nations peacekeepers were performing their duties in increasingly volatile and dangerous situations and stressed the importance of timely field intelligence. Member States must be told why there were so many fatalities among peacekeepers in the field and the Secretariat should undertake a study in that regard.
Argentina's representative, speaking on behalf of the Rio Group, raised the issue of timely reimbursement to contributing countries for troops and contingent-owned equipment. While some progress had been made in that regard, it was a source of concern that in some specific cases there were still greater than normal delays. It was equally worrisome that the Organization was still indebted for important amounts from operations that had already been closed. All payments must be made without discrimination.
Also speaking this morning were the representatives of Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ghana, Republic of Korea, El Salvador, Kuwait, China, Ukraine and Italy.
The Fourth Committee will meet again at 10 a.m. Tuesday, 25 October, to continue its review of peacekeeping operations, as well as to take action on draft resolutions relating to decolonization issues and international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space.
The Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization) met this morning to continue its comprehensive review of the whole question of peacekeeping operations in all their aspects.
ALBERTO D'ALOTTO (Argentina), speaking on behalf of the Rio Group, said there were ongoing peacekeeping operations that demanded greater efforts from the international community and stressed the importance of promoting dialogue and collaboration in the field of peacekeeping. There should be an integrated communication strategy to inform the international community about the role and responsibilities of United Nations peacekeeping troops and promote the benefits of their presence in local communities. In that respect, the relationship with the Department of Public Information must be a priority.
The Rio Group decisively supported the zero-tolerance policy launched by the Secretary-General to address sexual abuse and exploitation in peacekeeping missions, he continued. In that respect, the Secretariat should adopt the necessary measures to create an environment that prevented such cases. There was a need for firm measures, with special emphasis on the preventive aspect and the Rio Group reiterated the direct responsibility of chiefs and commanders regarding permanent guidance of personnel under their command. It was important to end the veil of silence that surrounded and protected those illicit acts.
While acknowledging some improvement in the timing of reimbursement for contingent-owned equipment and troops, he also expressed concern that, in some specific cases, there were still delays that were much greater than normal. At the same time, it was equally worrisome that the Organization was still indebted for important amounts from already closed operations. In that respect, the Rio Group stressed that all payments must be paid without any discrimination, respecting the corresponding apportioned assessments.
MANOEL CASTRO (Brazil), associating himself with the Rio Group, said the Outcome Document of the 2005 World Summit had provided a timely guideline for the priorities and challenges ahead. There was an undeniable need to strengthen rapid deployment mechanisms in order to help missions in crisis, for which a wide spectrum of options should be assessed. There were other equally important fronts to tackle as well, such as the development of a more accurate capacity to predict the future needs of peacekeeping missions, the adequacy of mandates and resources, and the need to find new troop-contributing countries.
Cooperation with regional organizations was another core issue, he said. There were clear advantages to having close relationships with organizations that possessed greater knowledge of the field. However, the capacities of those organizations should not be over-stretched and the competences afforded by their constitutive instruments should be respected. In Haiti, the Organization of American States was doing remarkable work in registering voters and organizing elections in coordination with the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), to which Brazil had recently made a significant donation.
Peacebuilding and multidimensional peacekeeping went hand in hand in efforts to ensure that countries emerging from conflict would not relapse, he said. Building sustainable peace was a long and strenuous endeavour that should take due account of the root causes of conflict, such as hunger, poverty, disease and other plights. The Brazilian participation in MINUSTAH was part of a broader effort being made to assist a sister country in the region. As a developing country, Brazil was concerned with the financial aspects of peacekeeping. It must be made feasible for a growing number of countries to contribute. The proposal by the Rio Group relating to rapid reimbursement was one of the options in that regard. Moreover, there should be vigilance in paying reimbursements in a timely manner.
MUNIR AKRAM (Pakistan) said that enabling the United Nations successfully to carry out its mandated tasks posed formidable challenges in planning, coordination, resource mobilization, deployment, command and control and implementation. While much progress had been made, continuous innovation and improvement were needed in all those fields. Best practices and experience gained from past operations must be put to appropriate use, and at the same time, it should be clear that the objective of each particular mission was different. The concept of operation, the integrated planning process, mandate, deployment and implementation of each mission should be guided by that objective.
Mandates set by the Security Council must be realistic and achievable, and adequate resources must be provided to implement the mandates, he said. The implementation of a mission's mandate had to be comprehensive and aimed not just at keeping peace but also at sustaining it. Wider, more complex and robust mandates required larger and stronger, more adequately equipped and fully operational missions. Many larger missions today were still under-staffed and over-stretched, adversely affecting performance, discipline and command and control. One way to strengthen peacekeeping was by promoting a stronger relationship between the United Nations and regional organizations.
Eliminating sexual exploitation and abuse was a priority objective, he continued, adding that accountability should extend to commanders and managers alike. In that regard, Pakistan stressed the need for better coordination and consultation with Member States. It would also be important to have a uniform and consolidated list of standards or code for conduct.
Pointing out that United Nations peacekeepers were performing duties in increasingly volatile and dangerous situations, he said the need to ensure the safety and security of peacekeepers could not be overemphasized. In that context, Pakistan stressed the importance of timely field intelligence. Member States must be told why there were so many fatalities among peacekeepers in the field, and Pakistan urged the Secretariat to undertake a study in that regard.
IFTEKHAR AHMED CHOWDHURY (Bangladesh) said that the expanded role of a peacekeeping mission had effectively blurred the distinction between peacekeeping and peacebuilding to benefit of the host society. Peacekeeping was not a solution, but a means to undertake peacebuilding activities that were essential to preventing a post-conflict society from lapsing back into chaos and violence. Peacekeeping could not be a substitute to addressing the root causes of conflict. Sustainable peace could only be achieved through ensuring sustainable development; people would be compelled to resort to their guns if they did not find alternative means for their livelihood.
The safety and security of peacekeepers was of paramount importance, he stressed, condemning all killings of peacekeepers. Bangladesh appreciated the Department of Peacekeeping Operations' initiative to adopt an integrated approach in collaboration with the Diplomatic Security Service, and re-emphasized the crucial importance of further improving the capacity for collection, analysis and dissemination of intelligence in real time in order to enhance missions' capacity to handle their security and safety needs.
It was a matter of deep regret that the achievements of thousands of peacekeepers over the years had been marred by allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse by a few, he said. That was an area the United Nations could not afford to neglect if it was to maintain its profile and image. It was essential for peacekeepers to have the trust and confidence of the people they were assigned to protect. Bangladesh welcomed the Department of Peacekeeping Operations' initiative to launch an integrated training service, which, among other things, may include the training of all personnel deployed in a peacekeeping mission on matters of sexual exploitation and abuse.
WILLEM RAMPANGILEI (Indonesia), aligning himself with the statement made on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement, said that five years after publication of the Brahimi Report, there had been clear improvements in United Nations peacekeeping, but implementation was not complete. It was time to take another look at the report in the light of lessons learned and in the interest of best practices. Although the report had been based on the assumption that the Department of Peacekeeping Operations would launch only one large mission a year, four had been launched in the last year alone. The experience of more than half a century of peacekeeping should be synthesized into a body of knowledge and guidance. Such a doctrine would help in training and preparing peacekeepers. Although one size could never fit all, there must be complete clarity on the issues and procedures.
Calling for adequate and targeted training in peacekeeping and the establishment of an appropriate training profile for peacekeepers of all levels, he welcomed the assurance that the United Nations would implement, within six months, consistent, thorough training for all peacekeeping personnel. A professional train-the-trainer peacekeeping course had been conducted in Indonesia, which had been attended by several countries from the region. In order for the peacekeeper to be an effective representative of the Organization, a suitable career structure similar to what was available in the Secretariat should be established. That would consolidate peacekeeping as the set of specialized skills that it was.
Regarding the reorganization of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, he welcomed the establishment of integrated and cohesive teams in the Department to direct and support field operations at Headquarters. Moreover, there was a need for smart and innovative ways to determine priorities in allocating resources, as resource constraints would always be an issue. Indonesia welcomed the collaboration between the Department and the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations towards developing the framework for the Standing Police Capacity. Hopefully, they would also work closely on the strategic reserve and the standby arrangements system. Indonesia was profoundly disappointed at reports of sexual abuse and misconduct by some peacekeepers and called for adequate action in that regard. Other troop-contributing countries should ensure that they also took action to stamp out such unwanted behaviour.
ROBERT TACHIE-MENSON (Ghana) stressed the need to recruit the most qualified personnel to key vacancies in a transparent manner. While Ghana welcomed efforts to redress the imbalance in senior-level field appointments, much still remained to be done, as they continued to exhibit a heavy imbalance in favour of the developed countries. Further, Ghana was gravely concerned over recent attempts to introduce new selection criteria for some mission posts without consulting with troop-contributing countries.
The role of regional and subregional organizations in conflict resolution, peacekeeping and peacebuilding was vital, he continued. After years of untold suffering, African countries, through the establishment of the African Union Peace and Security Council, had exhibited the determination to overcome the scourge of conflict that had afflicted the region. Ghana welcomed the assistance extended by the United Nations and its development partners to that nascent institution, and called for the strengthening of cooperation to enable the regional body to assume its responsibilities on the continent. To that end, an area requiring urgent attention was the training of troops and the standardization of equipment for the proposed five subregional African Standby Brigades.
The role of police and correction officers in peacekeeping missions could not be overemphasized, he continued. Ghana commended officials for their untiring efforts to strengthen capabilities both in the field and at Headquarters. In that regard, Ghana affirmed its support for the establishment of a standby police capacity, but cautioned that the selection process should be fair, transparent and based on United Nations principles. Ghana equally endorsed the decision to establish formed police units, but stressed that the meagre financial resources of most developing countries could inhibit their desire to participate. The Department of Peacekeeping Operations and developing partners might, therefore, consider extending the requisite assistance to address the inadequate logistical capabilities of troop-contributing countries from the developing world.
SHIN KAK-SOO (Republic of Korea) noted that the demand for United Nations peacekeeping missions throughout the world were greater than ever before, seriously over-stretching the resources and abilities of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. The nature of peacekeeping operations had also become more complex and multidimensional, expanding beyond the Department's responsibilities. There had also been a considerable increase in the required financial resources. That process of expansion could not go on indefinitely, and there was a need to define the mandate of each peacekeeping mission clearly at its inception and to devise exit strategies. In post-conflict situations, such factors as security; disarmament, demobilization and reintegration; reconstruction; and social stability were also important, and approaches to those matters should be integrated into all peacekeeping operations.
The Republic of Korea had steadfastly supported the establishment of a Peacebuilding Commission and hoped that the body could begin its work not later than the end of the year, he said. The Department's rapid deployment capacity must be strengthened in order to respond to crises in time. Regarding the creation of a Strategic Reserve, cooperation with regional groups deserved consideration, and regular consultations should be held with all stakeholders, including major financial contributors. It was important to have a balanced geographic distribution in the recruitment of Department staff and special consideration should be given not only to applicants from troop-contributing countries, but also to applicants from those contributing financially.
He said his country strongly supported the Secretary-General's zero-tolerance policy regarding sexual exploitation and abuse by United Nations peacekeepers and asked for plans to strengthen the Organization's investigative capacity. The responsibility of commanding officers for the misdeeds of personnel under their authority should be increased. To ensure that all new policies were widely acknowledged, understood, adhered to and enforced, unified guidelines applicable to all United Nations peacekeeping personnel should be developed and implemented.
HÉCTOR ENRIQUE CELARIÉ COLATO (El Salvador) stressed the importance of information and training for peacekeeping staff, as well as that of consolidating efforts to improve the capacity of the "blue helmets". El Salvador expressed supported proposals for the reorganization of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, and was optimistic about the future of peacekeeping operations. A year ago there had been many doubts about the future of peacekeeping, given the complexity of the Department's mandate but the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations had since carried out excellent work, improving the work of the Fourth Committee, as well as that carried out in peacekeeping operations.
He paid tribute to the military and police advisory community, which had carried out studies on start-up missions and submitted their evaluations, support and recommendations to the Department in a timely fashion. The staff of the Department deserved thanks for their efforts in El Salvador, which was a successful example of the peacekeeping system. El Salvador was aware that the time had come to go beyond its borders and share its experiences with the world. Such a sharing could help countries that were experiencing similar conflict situations.
MARTIN CHUNGONG AYAFOR (Cameroon), aligning himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said peacekeeping operations were to some extent a window on the Organization that should not become smudged by the dishonourable conduct of some peacekeepers. Cameroon condemned sexual abuse by United Nations peacekeeping personnel, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and called on the Member States from which the perpetrators came to take appropriate measures to prevent any recurrence of such behaviour. Combating such repugnant behaviour required better training of peacekeepers, including in ethics and discipline. The Organization's policy should also be explained to local populations.
Welcoming the decision of the 2005 World Summit to establish a Peacebuilding Commission, he said Africa in particular placed high hopes in the new body, which would allow for better reconstruction of States emerging from conflict. The new body would not be able to live up to its potential, however, unless exit strategies were improved. The Outcome Document also focused on cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations. The African Union was gradually becoming more involved in peacekeeping, despite its constrained means, and the deployment of its contingents in the Sudan, with the assistance of the international community, was proof that Africa was on the right path. It was critical that the region's peacekeeping capacity be strengthened.
He commended the Secretary-General for his proposal, approved by the Security Council, to increase personnel of United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) in order for the Mission to be more effective in the eastern part of the country and make next year's presidential elections possible. Cameroon remained concerned about the security of personnel in peacekeeping missions and called on the Secretary-General to pursue the establishment of a police and security department. Cameroon was playing a more active role in peacekeeping operations, with police contingents in Haiti, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Burundi.
MANSOUR AL-OTAIBI (Kuwait) said that peacekeeping operations deployed throughout the world were undertaking a vital role in resolving crises and conflicts. Those operations were the main means to maintain international peace and security and fostering the Department of Peacekeeping Operations' role was of the utmost importance. In that connection, Kuwait stressed the importance of a clear-cut specification of tasks and goals; continued cooperation between the Security Council and troop-contributing countries; new measures to further enhance consultation in all phases of peacekeeping operations; and strengthening the role of preventative diplomacy.
The allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping operations were of great concern, he continued. Kuwait commended the measures taken by the Department, as well as some Member States, to punish the perpetrators of such acts, which had stained the Organization's reputation and had adversely affected the great record of peacekeeping operations in which all Member States took pride.
Kuwait had signed a United Nations Headquarters convention to back the activities of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) in assisting the Iraqi people, he said, expressing the hope that the efforts of the Iraqi Government and other actors would succeed in confronting terrorist acts. Kuwait also hoped that elections for the national assembly would be held with a view to forming a representative constitutional Government, which would promote an atmosphere of tolerance. Kuwait would extend all types of assistance to help Iraq overcome the present difficult phase in its history.
LI JUNHUA (China) said that over the last decades the United Nations had developed peacekeeping as an important instrument to fulfil its mandate to maintain international peace and security. The 2005 World Summit Outcome Document was a positive assessment of peacekeeping operations. The increasing demands for United Nations peacekeeping operations, and the new challenges faced in those operations, required reform.
Noting that many of the recommendations of the Brahimi Report had already been implemented, he said peacekeeping reform should combine both continuity and innovation. Only by adhering to the principles of the United Nations Charter, and under the mandate of the Security Council, while abiding by the principle of impartiality, could peacekeeping get the necessary trust and support. Resources had to be used effectively, and since there was an increasing demand for peacekeeping operations, all countries should increase their support politically and financially, as well as with human resources.
Expressing support for the strengthening of rapid deployment arrangements, as well as for the concept of a Strategic Reserve and a Standing Police Capacity, he called for "fully mobilized" cooperation with regional organizations, particularly in Africa. In recent years, China had expanded its participation considerably and had provided 14 peacekeeping operations with military, police and civilian personnel.
VICTOR KRYZHANIVSKY (Ukraine) said that the safety and security of United Nations peacekeepers had become an issue of great concern. Ukraine supported better information gathering and analysis in the field in order to prevent and manage threats to peacekeeping personnel, and called for the effective implementation of the concept of Joint Mission Analysis Cells in field missions. As one of the initiators of the 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, Ukraine fully supported the efforts to strengthen that Convention's regime.
Rapid deployment was an essential element for successful peacekeeping operations, he continued. Ukraine encouraged the Secretariat to continue to work with Member States to make all the relevant mechanisms, including the Strategic Deployment Stocks and the Standby Arrangement System, operate effectively at full capacity. It was widely recognized that securing financial resources was among the major obstacles to the rapid deployment of troops in the field. While there had been considerable improvements in financial issues over the past few years, it was, nevertheless, important to look at ways to ensure timely reimbursements for troop-contributing countries and contingent-owned equipment.
The partnership between the United Nations and regional and sub-regional organizations could be strengthened in the area of peacekeeping, he said. Ukraine, therefore, encouraged the Secretariat to continue its efforts to enhance cooperation with the relevant organizations. Of equal importance was assistance to strengthen the peacekeeping capacities of regional organizations, particularly the African Union and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Ukraine also welcomed the higher level of interaction between the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and troop-contributing countries over the last year, which was indispensable for effective peacekeeping.
BEATA PĘKSA-KRAWIEC (Poland), aligning herself with the statement made on behalf of the European Union, said that one of the Under-Secretary-General's proposals concerning the implementation of the World Summit Outcome Document -- the elaboration of the peacekeeping doctrine -- deserved attention. There was an urgent need to elaborate a basic document that would provide definitions, describe the environment in which operations were conducted, give guidelines for planning, deployment and operations, establish rules of engagement with regional organizations and other international institutions, and set clear standards of cooperation with States. Hopefully, that important task would be completed as soon as possible.
She expressed support for the idea of further enhancing and systematizing the relationships between the United Nations and regional organizations through a framework of agreements and other measures as referred to in Security Council resolution 1631 (2005). The most urgent question was that of practical cooperation in the planning of forces and conducting operations. Not only was the United Nations over-stretched, but Member States were less and less able to provide troops when the need occurred. A new approach to the planning of forces had to be developed and the concept of Strategic Reserve had to be made operational.
The Peacebuilding Commission was another area for cooperation between regional organizations, United Nations agencies and the Secretariat, she said. The establishment of the Commission would definitively advance the development of multifunctional and multifaceted peacekeeping missions, especially in Africa. Regarding sexual exploitation and abuse, there should be an effective mechanism for conducting investigations and bringing the offenders to justice. Poland supported the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) proposal for National Investigation Officers and any attempt to obstruct investigations must be adequately dealt with. Sexual exploitation and abuse was just the most dramatic part of the whole problem of misconduct by peacekeepers, who must behave according to the highest ethical standards.
MARCELLO SPATAFORA (Italy) said his country had made unprecedented increases in its contributions and commitments to multilateral organizations whose purpose was to maintain international peace and security, not only in words or financial resources, but also in manpower. Approximately 10,000 Italian soldiers were currently deployed on United Nations-authorized operations in countries including Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as Kosovo. That unstinting contribution to so many challenging situations had not stopped Italy from participating in major new United Nations-led operations such as the 2005 mission to the Sudan.
Italy had joined other Group of 8 industrialized nations partners in the so-called Global Peace Operations Initiative, which aimed to train 75,000 peacekeepers by 2010, he said. Furthermore, based on the experiences of Italy's military police forces, the Carabinieri, a Centre of Excellence for Stability Police Units had been established in Vicenza, with the aim of filling the gap between the ending of a military conflict and the full re-establishment of security. The Centre had been conceived both as a training centre and a doctrinal hub in order to create a capacity that the United Nations could use in accordance with its project to expand police capacities.
The sexual exploitation and abuse scandal had damaged the image of United Nations peacekeeping forces, he said. Italy had followed closely the debate that the Special Committee had dedicated to that matter earlier this year. While many aspects of the problem had legal consequences, which must be addressed with the proper caution -- through an active dialogue with troop-contributing countries that addressed the different legal systems involved -- the Secretariat's efforts should pay special attention to preventive action. It must ensure that troops deployed on peacekeeping operations met the required quality standards and had undergone specialized training courses to raise awareness of the problem.
PRAMOD MAHAJAN (India), aligning himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said that the fact that the United Nations today was contributing a total of 83,000 troops in 18 peacekeeping operations across the world was a sad commentary on the global community. Although the surge in peacekeeping had brought new challenges and more demands, the old problems remained. The main problems besetting peacekeeping were not a lack of resources or even personnel, but an unrepresentative Security Council that lacked the political will to act, and if it acted, did so inadequately. Its working methods were not satisfactory as it refused to draw troop contributors into discussions. Even when troop-contributing countries were consulted, it was done in a perfunctory manner. The Council had not respected the recommendation in the Outcome Document in that regard.
He strongly urged enhanced interaction between the Council, the Secretariat and troop-contributing countries, recalling the bitter experience when the Council had changed the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) from Chapter VI to Chapter VII without consulting the two largest contingents --India and Jordan -- which had led to their withdrawal. If Charter provisions were not followed, and troop-contributing countries were not given a say in the evolution of Council mandates, troop contributors might have little option in the future but to pull out of operations in which their units were forced to take on tasks that they either could not or should not take on. More than 80 per cent of peacekeeping troops were contributed by members of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Council should shore up participation by others.
It was a sad spectacle when a variety of constraints, most notably fiscal considerations, now determined the peacekeeping activities of the United Nations, he said, referring to the recent tendency towards regional solutions. "We must guard against such operations becoming franchised or sub-contracted to a degree where the Security Council is perceived as using regionalization as a device to shirk the exercise of its global responsibility for peace and security." Concerns about the safety and security of United Nations peacekeepers must receive the highest priority. A glaring lacuna had been the paucity of tactical information to the troops. The Department of Peacekeeping Operations should make information available in real time. "For too long have our troops survived by their wits and managed with their own resources", he added.
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