11 May 2006
Security Council Requests Secretary-General to Re-Establish Monitoring Group on Somalia, Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1676 (2006)
Acting under Chapter VII of UN Charter, Council Stresses Obligation of All Member States to Comply Fully with Arms Embargo
NEW YORK, 10 May (UN Headquarters) -- Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter this morning, the Security Council requested the Secretary-General to re-establish within 30 days, and for a six-month period, the Monitoring Group established by resolution 1519 (2003) with respect to the situation in Somalia.
Unanimously adopting resolution 1676 (2006), the Council expressed its intention, in light of the Monitoring Group's report dated 5 April 2006 (document S/2006/229, annex), to consider specific actions to improve implementation of and compliance with the arms embargo imposed on Somalia by Council resolution 733 (1992).
The Monitoring Group's mandate would include: investigating, in coordination with relevant international agencies, all financial, maritime and other revenue-generating activities used to commit arms embargo violations; investigating any means of transport, routes, seaports, airports and other facilities used in connection with arms embargo violations; refining and updating information on the draft list of individuals and entities in violation of the measures implemented by Member States in accordance with resolution 733 (1992), inside and outside Somalia, as well as their active supporters, for possible future measures by the Council; assisting in identifying areas where the capacities of States in the region could be strengthened to facilitate the implementation of the arms embargo; and submitting for the Security Council's consideration a final report covering all its tasks no later than 15 days prior to the termination of its mandate.
Stressing, by other provisions of the text, the obligation of all Member States to comply fully with measures relating to the arms embargo, the Council also requested the Committee established under Council resolution 751 (1992) to consider a visit to Somalia and/or the region by its Chairman and those he may designate to demonstrate the Council's determination to give full effect to the arms embargo.
[Under resolution 733 (1992) the Council decided, under Chapter VII, that all States would immediately implement a general and complete embargo on all deliveries of arms and military equipment to Somalia in order to establish peace and stability in that country.
Strongly urging all parties to the conflict in Somalia immediately to cease hostilities, agree to a ceasefire and promote reconciliation and political settlement, the Council called on all States to refrain from actions that might increase tension and impede or delay a peaceful and negotiated outcome to the conflict.]
This morning's meeting began at 11:20 a.m. and ended at 11:25 a.m.
The full text of resolution 1676 (2006) reads, as follows:
"The Security Council,
"Reaffirming its previous resolutions and the statements of its President concerning the situation in Somalia, in particular resolution 733 (1992) of 23 January 1992, which established an embargo on all delivery of weapons and military equipment to Somalia (hereinafter referred to as the "arms embargo"), resolution 1519 (2003) of 16 December 2003, resolution 1558 (2004) of 17 August 2004, resolution 1587 (2005) of 15 March 2005 and resolution 1630 (2005) of 14 October 2005,
"Reaffirming the importance of the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of Somalia,
"Reiterating the urgent need for all Somali leaders to take tangible steps to continue political dialogue,
"Reiterating its strong support for the Special Representative of the Secretary-General,
"Stressing the need for the Transitional Federal Institutions to continue working towards establishing effective national governance in Somalia,
"Commending the efforts of the African Union and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development in support of the Transitional Federal Institutions and welcoming the African Union's continued support for national reconciliation in Somalia,
"Taking note of the report of the Monitoring Group dated 5 April 2006 (S/2006/229, annex) submitted pursuant to paragraph 3 (i) of resolution 1630 (2005) and the observations and recommendations contained therein,
"Condemning the significant increase in the flow of weapons and ammunition supplies to and through Somalia, which constitutes a violation of the arms embargo and a serious threat to the Somali peace process,
"Concerned about the increasing incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships in waters off the coast of Somalia, and its impact on security in Somalia,
"Reiterating its insistence that all Member States, in particular those in the region, should refrain from any action in contravention of the arms embargo and should take all necessary steps to hold violators accountable,
"Reiterating and underscoring the importance of enhancing the monitoring of the arms embargo in Somalia through persistent and vigilant investigation into the violations, bearing in mind that strict enforcement of the arms embargo will improve the overall security situation in Somalia,
"Determining that the situation in Somalia constitutes a threat to international peace and security in the region,
"Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
"1. Stresses the obligation of all Member States to comply fully with the measures imposed by resolution 733 (1992);
"2. Expresses its intention, in light of the report of the Monitoring Group dated 5 April 2006 (S/2006/229, annex), to consider specific actions to improve implementation of and compliance with measures imposed by resolution 733 1992);
"3. Requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with the Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) of 24 April 1992 (hereinafter referred to as "the Committee"), to re-establish within thirty days from the date of the adoption of this resolution, and for a period of six months, the Monitoring Group referred to in paragraph 3 of resolution 1558 (2004), with the following mandate:
(a) to continue the tasks outlined in paragraphs 3 (a) to (c) of resolution 1587 (2005);
(b) to continue to investigate, in coordination with relevant international agencies, all activities, including in the financial, maritime and other sectors, which generate revenues used to commit arms embargo violations;
(c) to continue to investigate any means of transport, routes, seaports, airports and other facilities used in connection with arms embargo violations;
(d) to continue refining and updating information on the draft list of those individuals and entities who violate the measures implemented by Member States in accordance with resolution 733 (1992), inside and outside Somalia, and their active supporters, for possible future measures by the Council, and to present such information to the Committee as and when the Committee deems appropriate;
(e) to continue making recommendations based on its investigations, on the previous reports of the Panel of Experts (S/2003/223 and S/2003/1035) appointed pursuant to resolutions 1425 (2002) of 22 July 2002 and 1474 (2003) of 8 April 2003, and on the previous reports of the Monitoring Group (S/2004/604, S/2005/153, S/2005/625 and S/2006/229) appointed pursuant to resolutions 1519 (2003) of 16 December 2003, 1558 (2004) of 17 August 2004, 1587 (2005) of 15 March 2005 and 1630 (2005) of 14 October 2005;
(f) to work closely with the Committee on specific recommendations for additional measures to improve overall compliance with the arms embargo;
(g) to assist in identifying areas where the capacities of States in the region can be strengthened to facilitate the implementation of the arms embargo;
(h) to provide to the Council, through the Committee, a midterm briefing within 90 days from its establishment;
(i) to submit, for the Security Council's consideration, through the Committee, a final report covering all the tasks set out above, no later than 15 days prior to the termination of the Monitoring Group's mandate;
"4. Further requests the Secretary-General to make the necessary financial arrangements to support the work of the Monitoring Group;
"5. Reaffirms paragraphs 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10 of resolution 1519 (2003);
"6. Requests the Committee, in accordance with its mandate and in consultation with the Monitoring Group and other relevant United Nations entities, to consider the recommendations in the report of the Monitoring Group dated 5 April 2006 and recommend to the Council ways to improve implementation of and compliance with the arms embargo, in response to continuing violations;
"7. Further requests the Committee to consider, when appropriate, a visit to Somalia and/or the region by its Chairman and those he may designate, as approved by the Committee, to demonstrate the Security Council's determination to give full effect to the arms embargo;
"8. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter."
The Council had before it a letter (document S/2006/229) dated 4 May 2006 from the Chairman of the Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) addressed to the President of the Security Council. In it, the Chairman notes that the security situation in central and southern Somalia continues to be highly unstable and increasingly volatile, resulting in violent confrontations between and among different main actors. The Monitoring Group has identified the Transitional Federal Government, the Mogadishu-based opposition alliance, the militant fundamentalists, the business elite, pirate groups and feuding sub-clans as the main actors to whom arms, military materiel and financial support continue to flow "like a river" in violation of the arms embargo. Three fundamental sources feed this flow: a widening circle of States -- each with its own agenda -- arms trading groups and economically powerful individuals, and the business elite.
According to the letter, a secondary row of main actors comprises the feuding sub-clans and pirate groups that are aggressively and, at times violently, taking advantage of the lack of central authority to pursue criminal activities or attempting to resolve clan feuds through violent armed confrontations. As a result, a process of overall militarization continues alarmingly throughout central and southern Somalia.
The national-level standoff between the Transitional Federal Government and the Mogadishu-based opposition has mutated to include a powerful militant fundamentalist element, the letter says. The two alliances have been reconfigured due to political and military factors, the most notable of which involve the withdrawal of the Jowhar local administration from the Transitional Federal Government to join the opposition and the rise of the militant fundamentalists as a third, ideologically motivated force, independent of the opposition, but still opposed to the establishment of the Transitional Federal Government. As a result, the Mogadishu-based opposition has also been severely degraded by a series of bloody fights with militant militia forces, resulting in the strengthening of the militants' hold over significant areas formerly under opposition influence.
According to the letter, all six main actors are heavily armed, organized and aggressively keen to protect and ensure the survival of their respective vested interests, be they fundamentally economic, as in the case of the local administrations run by warlords and the huge and powerful cartels of the business elite, or ideological as in the case of the militants. In the Monitoring Group's view, economic vested interests, and now the ideological interests of the militants, are driving the opposition to the establishment of a central government. In addition, the pirate groups and the feuding sub-clans operate on the margins of the main contest between the Transitional Federal Government and the other principal antagonists, adding immeasurably to the lawless trauma and widespread instability in Somalia.
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