22 October 2001


Resolution 1374 (2001), Adopted Unanimously, Seeks Plan,
Within 60 Days, for Action on UNITA Diamonds, Arms Violations, Finances

NEW YORK, 19 October (UN Headquarters) -- The Security Council this afternoon decided to extend the mandate of the monitoring mechanism on sanctions against the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) for six months, ending on 19 April 2002.

By a unanimous vote, the Council adopted resolution 1374 (2001) in which it called on the Sanctions Committee established by resolution 864 (1993) to review the reports of the monitoring mechanism with a view to examining its recommendations and to offer guidance to the monitoring mechanism on its future work.

The Council also requested the monitoring mechanism to provide the Committee, within 60 days, with a detailed action plan for its future work, in particular sanctions on UNITA diamonds, violations of arms sanctions, and on UNITA finances.

Further, the Council requested the Secretary-General to appoint four experts to serve on the monitoring mechanism and to make necessary financial arrangements to support the work of the mechanism.

The Council also requested the monitoring mechanism to report periodically to the Committee and to provide an additional report by 19 April 2002.

The meeting, which began at 5:45 p.m., was adjourned at 5:49 p.m.


The full text of resolution 1374 (2001), contained in document S/2001/985, reads as follows:

"The Security Council,

"Reaffirming its resolution 864 (1993) of 15 September 1993 and all subsequent relevant resolutions, in particular resolutions 1127 (1997) of 28 August 1997, 1173 (1998) of 12 June 1998, 1237 (1999) of 7 May 1999, 1295 (2000) of 18 April 2000, 1336 (2001) of 23 January 2001 and 1348 (2001) of 19 April 2001,

"Reaffirming also its commitment to preserve the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Angola,

"Expressing once again its concern regarding the humanitarian effects of the present situation on the civilian population of Angola,

"Recognizing the importance attached, inter alia, to the monitoring, for as long as it is necessary, of the implementation of the provisions contained in resolutions 864 (1993), 1127 (1997) and 1173 (1998),

"Determining that the situation in Angola continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region,

"Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,

"1. Takes note of the supplementary report (S/2001/966) of 12 October 2001 provided pursuant to paragraph 4 of resolution 1348 (2001);

"2. Expresses its intention to give full consideration to this supplementary report;

"3. Decides to extend the mandate of the monitoring mechanism for a further period of six months, ending on 19 April 2002;

"4. Calls upon the Committee established pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) to undertake a review to be completed by 31 December 2001 of the Final Report of the Monitoring Mechanism (S/2000/1225), the Addendum to the Final Report (S/2001/363*), and the Supplementary Report (S/2001/966) with a view to examining the recommendations contained in these reports and to offer guidance to the monitoring mechanism on its future work;

"5. Requests the monitoring mechanism to provide the Committee within 60 days of the adoption of this resolution with a detailed action plan for its future work, in particular, but not exclusively, on sanctions on UNITA diamonds, violations of arms sanctions, and on UNITA finances;

"6. Requests further the monitoring mechanism to report periodically to the Committee and to provide an additional report by 19 April 2002;

"7. Requests the Secretary-General, upon adoption of this resolution and acting in consultation with the Committee, to appoint four experts to serve on the monitoring mechanism and further requests the Secretary-General to make the necessary financial arrangements to support the work of the monitoring mechanism;

"8. Requests the Chairman of the Committee established pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) to submit the additional report to the Council by 19 April 2002;

"9. Calls upon all States to cooperate fully with the monitoring mechanism in the discharge of its mandate;

"10. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter."


Before taking action on the resolution this afternoon, the Council had considered a letter from the President of the Council containing the supplementary report of the Monitoring Mechanism on Sanctions against UNITA (S/2001/966). From 1993 to 1998 the Council has imposed a series of sanctions on the União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) ranging from arms embargoes to bans on the sale of diamonds and of UNITA officials, to the closure of UNITA offices and the freezing of their assets. Since its establishment, the monitoring mechanism has been charged with the responsibility of collecting information and investigating leads relating to violations of pertinent sanctions resolutions "with a view to improving the implementation of the measures imposed against UNITA". During the current mandate period, the mechanism pursued allegations of sanctions violations and has continued to examine the role of criminal elements instrumental to the capacity of UNITA to sustain its guerrilla war. In addition, the mechanism has been able to expand its base of inquiry by drawing on the expertise of professional asset tracers to try to identify the financial resources held by UNITA.

The report gives an overview of UNITA, including an examination of the leadership, military structures, internal security and control, and presence in refugee camps. It also provides a review of violations of the arms sanctions, drawing attention to the petroleum and petroleum product component of the sanctions regime imposed against UNITA.

With regard to the sanctions against diamonds mined in Angola, the mechanism has established that the sanctions continue to be violated. Between $1 million and $1.2 million of embargoed diamonds leave Angola each day. The report states that given the large size of this trade, which of necessity involves many players in many countries, it is not possible in the course of a single mandate or a single report to evaluate every sector of the rough diamond trade that could be considered to be involved. The single largest problem in the diamond sector is no longer the diamonds produced by UNITA, but illicit diamonds being smuggled on a larger scale by other players as mining areas previously held by UNITA are being recaptured.

In the circumstances, the primary responsibility for intercepting diamonds mined in defiance of the embargo lies with States. To date, however, not a single parcel of illicit Angolan gems are being intercepted anywhere. No diamond dealer has claimed to have witnessed Angolan gems being traded on any diamond bourse. The diamonds seem to vanish into thin air. Given the magnitude of the trade, how is this possible? the report asks.

The report emphasizes that the task of the monitoring mechanism has not yet been completed, since not only are investigations still pending but monitoring and deterrence cannot be ended until such time as peace in Angola is achieved. The report states that a systematic outreach to the countries of the region, aimed at winning their support for isolating UNITA and depriving it of its nearest support bases, is the most effective diplomatic means of forcing its leaders to see reason and return to the peace process. It warns that the international community, which has invested so much of its resources and efforts in the search for peace, cannot drop its guard and send an equivocal signal to the rebel movement, which continues its pursuit of power through armed struggle.

To be credible, the report says, UNITA’s appeals for dialogue must be accompanied by positive steps to renounce violence and by a tangible expression of a genuine desire for peace. Regrettably, earlier experiences are still fresh in the mind, and the review of the sanctions can be considered only when the process towards a peaceful settlement of the conflict becomes irreversible. Until that happens, the international community must remain vigilant to ensure strict compliance with the sanctions and make a concerted effort to close all possible loopholes which UNITA may seek to exploit in order to expand its diminished military capacity and retain a presence abroad.

It is also important to maintain contacts with those regional and international organizations that are already acquainted with the situation and which have provided valuable cooperation, within the limits of their capabilities, to the work of the mechanism. Concerted action on all fronts will therefore be crucial to realizing the common aspiration of peace and reconciliation in Angola, in what is hoped will be the not too-distant-future.

Looking to the future, the report states that there is a need for establishing a permanent capability of the Security Council to ensure ongoing monitoring of targeted sanctions regimes and illicit trafficking in high-value commodities in armed conflicts. Such a new unified facility would be cost-effective and would avoid duplication of tasks and overlapping of investigations and ensure the preservation of a comprehensive database as well as its systematic and continuing processing.

In the case of Angola, a monitoring capacity has been in place since July 2000. Any gap in the monitoring process would afford a respite to sanctions violators, and would be detrimental to the effectiveness of sanctions. The monitoring of illicit trafficking in high-value commodities involved in armed conflicts of which the Security Council is seized is intrinsically related to the question of sanctions monitoring.

The lack of enforcement of sanctions and embargoes and the perpetuation of illicit trafficking have the same negative impact on the perpetuation of conflicts. Sanctions violations and illicit trafficking involve the same patterns of illegal activities and similar criminal networks.

The report goes on to say that a permanent monitoring capability will also strengthen the enforcement of sanctions, because it will act as a deterrent to potential violations. That also sets the ground for obtaining the cooperation of States in complying with the sanctions.

Finally, the report says, another important issue is the status of the mechanism’s recommendations presented in December 2000. The consideration and further implementation of those recommendations by the Security Council will enable the Member States to take appropriate action to address the situation, for the better enforcement of the sanctions.

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